Learning and Teaching [Professional Studies]
Some core models of learning on the PGCE
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What does the PGCE offer?
What does the PGCE offer me? Hopkins (2014)
On the PGCE you will combine these 4 aspects or 4 P's. The expert practitioner is able to combine these elements together - the PGCE is only the beginning of this process which will continue to develop and grow during your practice.
Pedagogic Content Knowledge (1987)
Pedagogic and Content Knowledge model: Shulman (1987)
The expert practitioner is about to combine subject or content knowledge (that which is rooted in their discipline) which can be thought of as the "what we teach" with the pedagogic knowledge the "how we teach".
Pedagogic Content Knowledge (1993)
Pedagogic and Content Knowledge model: Cochran, DeRuiter and King (1993)
The transformation of subject matter for teaching (Shulman, 1986) occurs as the teacher critically reflects on and interprets the subject matter; finds multiple ways to represent the information as analogies, metaphors, examples, problems, demonstrations, and classroom activities; adapts the material to students’ abilities, gender, prior knowledge, and preconceptions(those pre-instructional informal, or non-traditional ideas students bring to the learning setting); and finally tailors the material to those specific students to whom the information will be taught (emphasis in original, p. 264)
Knowledge Model (1999)
A knowledge model: Leach and Moon (1999)
Leach and Moon developed Shulman's model to include the idea of school knowledge, this redefinition gives us the subject or discipline knowledge, interwoven with the pedagogic or theory knowledge and also alongside this is the idea of school knowledge or how the discourse is applied within the institution, recognizing the differences of all institution. The teacher does not come to the classroom as a Tabula Rasa (empty slate) but rather as a complex model themselves bringing a teacher identity with them.
The education spectrum? (2014)
The Trads, Roms and Mods: Claxton (2014)

Claxton and Lucas offer three "positionalities" of thinkers in the education spectrum. The ends of the spectrum are represented by the traditional ("trads") and the romantics ("roms") [also referred to as progressives or "progs"]. Lucas and Claxton (2014) argue that the Romantics (typified by Rousseau) never really existed but are a straw man created by the "traditionalists" (typified by ED Hirsh). Similarly the "trads" are typified as Gradgrindians who think all learning should be devoid of fun or engagement but just facts and tests. We need a more nuanced debate but also an understanding about the different perspectives.

Most teachers they say fall into a big middle ground which they call the moderates.

A couple of models of the dichotomy

More on this debate between "progressive" and "traditionalist" see this blog post from @headteacherguru

Who and what is school for ? (2015)
Who and What?: Hopkins (2015)
This model asks a couple of questions (i) who is education for: for the system or for the pupils? and (ii) how do we determine what is successful? The achievement by academic determination or by personal determination. Or a complex combination of these factors and who decides?
Where does learning take place (2016)
Learning Spaces: Hopkins (2016)
This model asks about the SPACES that learning can take place in and how we might think about using spaces for enhancing or developing learning - these are based in the formal and informal spaces of learning in which children will operate - we might ustilise these in our learning planning.
Impact of Technology (2016)
The impact of technology: Hopkins adapted from Selwyn (2016)
This model looks at the impact of technology in the classroom / teaching environment. It does not look at any particular technologies though different tech. will allow different things but at some core underlying technological principles that potentially impact on the current model.
Complexities of the teaching landscape (2014)
The complex landscape of teaching: Hopkins (2014)
This model looks at the complex set of interplays that come to bear on the classroom. A complex set of identities and factors from those of the child, school and teacher alongside the purpose and theories of learning as well as the values of learning that all these factors bring and that these are also intrinsic, extrinsic and personal. All of these sit within the framework of factors that are external to the school.
Relationships (uncited)

This Venn diagram explores again the relationships between the Student, the Teacher and the Content - what we can consider as the primary aspects of the classroom. The interfaces then explore how these primaries interface:

  • the interface between teacher and pupil is relationship
  • the interface between teacher and context is expertise
  • the interface between student and content is relevance
  • the interface between teacher, student and content is meaningful engagement.

There are questions to ask about all these interfaces and these also demand questions about the primaries and the ways in which they should behave.

Lessons from cognitive psychology

Cognitive Psychology has long been involved in developing ideas in laboratory or experimental situations that education has then used in the classroom. From Watson and Pavlov's experiments into behavioral responses to Piaget's ideas on stage theory, Maslow on Needs, Paivio on coding and Ebbinghaus on memory. More recently there have been developments on memory and retention. Willngham says,

"When teachers say they “know how children learn,” they are not talking about learning from a scientific perspective but about craft knowledge. They take the question to mean, “Do you know how to ensure that children in your classroom learn?” which is not the same as understanding the theoretical principles of cognitive psychology. In fact, in a 2012 study of 500 new teachers by the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), respondents said that their training was too theoretical and didn’t prepare them for teaching “in the real world.” Maybe they have a point. Perhaps teachers don’t need generalized theories and abstractions, but rather ready-to-go strategies—not information about how children learn, but the best way to teach fractions; not how children process negative emotion, but what to say to a 3rd grader who is dejected about his reading."

The graphic above is taken from the Willingham article referenced below
More on the debate around the use of the current methodologies and ideas that are coming from cognitive psychology
Willingham, D (2018) Unlocking the Science of how kids think, Education Next: Vol 18:3, Summer 2018
Rosenshine, B (2012) Principles of Instruction: Strategies that all teachers should know, American Educator: Spring 2010
Further Reading

IMPACT - Philosophical Perspectives on Educational Policy: Why theory is necessary to good teaching - Janet Orchard and Christopher Winch (2015)

This paper explores how teachers might be best prepared for the difficult and demanding work they undertake on society's behalf.

The paper argues that the best teachers need a conceptual framework as well as subject and practical skills and that these need to be informed by recent research findings.

What makes great teaching: A review of the underpinning research - Robert Coe, Cesare Aloisi, Steve Higgins and Lee Elliot Major (2014)

This is a review of research which looks to answer three apparently simple questions:

  • What makes 'great teaching',
  • What kinds of frameworks of tools could help us cature it?
  • How could this promote better learning.

It offers a framework of six components of great teaching, some tools for effective assessment and some principles for sustained professional learning.

What makes great pedagogy: Nine Claims from Research - Chris Husbands and Jo Pearce (2012).

This paper looks for research evidence to support nine strong claims about the characteristics of nine highly successful pedagogies. The effective pedagogies give:

  • consideration to pupil voice;
  • depend on the behaviour, knowledge and beliefs of teachers;
  • involve clear thinking about longer term outcomes;
  • build on learning and experience;
  • involve scaffolding learning;
  • involve a range of techniques;
  • develop higher order thinking and metacognition;
  • embed assessment for learning;
  • are inclusive of all learners.

Effective Teaching: A review of research and evidence - James Ko and Pamela Sammons (2013)

This is a review of research evidence that suggests that effective teachers are:

  • clear about goals;
  • knowledgeable about their subject(s);
  • communicate well, good use of resources;
  • knowledgable about thier students;
  • teach meta-cognitive stragegies;
  • address higher and lower cognitive objectives;
  • give regular feedback;
  • intergrate across subject disciplines;
  • accept responsibility for student outcomes.

The Science of Learning - Deans for Impact (2015)

This is a synopisis of learning from cognitive science over a range of key questions that is a resource for teachers and teacher educators. The questions are:

  • How do students understand new ideas?
  • How do students learn and retain new info?
  • How do students solve problems?
  • How do students transfer learning to new sits?
  • What motivates students to learn?
  • What are common misconceptions?

Learning about Learning: What every new teacher needs to know
National Council on Teacher Quality (2016)

This is an analysis of teacher textbooks in the US which contends that they do not cover what they claim are the six, "research proven instructional strategies" - these are:

  • A: Helping students take in new information
    • A1: pairing graphics with words
    • A2: Linking abstract concepts with concrete representations
  • B: Ensure students connect information to deepen understanding
    • B1: Posing probing questions
    • B2: Repeatedly alternating problems with solutions and problems that students must solve
  • C: Help students remember what they learned
    • C1: Distributing practice
    • C2: Assessing to boost retention

Top 20 Principles from Psychology for PreK-12: Teaching and Learning
Coalition for Psychology in Schools and Education (2015)

This is a collection of principles collected by CPSE and supported by the American Psychological Association - this is not written by pedagogic specialist but offers a range of interesting ideas worth considering and include:

  • Students beliefs or perceptions about intelligence,
  • What students already know effects their learning,
  • Learning is based on context,
  • Students self-regulation assists learning,
  • Student creativity can be fostered,
  • Teachers expectations affect students opprtunites to learn
  • and more ...
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